Administrasi System Ubuntu

Tips dan Trik Administrasi System
Ubuntu
Menggunakan Repository Offline
Ubuntu sangat identik dengan repository. Repository berisi kumpulan paket program tambahan
termasuk update sistem operasi itu sendiri. UGM menyediakan repository yang dapat di akses
secara Online dialamat http://repo.ugm.ac.id/ubuntu.
Selain itu, anda juga dapat menggunakan repository offline apabila tidak terkoneksi dengan
internet. Penggunaan repository offline dapat dilakukan dengan 2 cara; yaitu menggunakan
DVD Repository atau menyimpan pada hardisk.
DVD Repository
1) Download 5 ISO DVD Repository Ubuntu 7.10 di http://repo.ugm.ac.id/iso/ubuntu-
dvdrepo/
2) Setelah selesai membakar iso repository tersebut pada DVD, anda siap menggunakan
DVD repository tersebut
3) Buka Synaptic. Start Menu -> Administration -> Package Manager.
4) Pada Synaptic Package Manager, pilih menu Settings -> Repositories
5) Pada kotak dialog Software source, klik tombol Add CD-ROM. System akan meminta
kita untuk memasukkan DVD Repository yang telah anda buat sebelumnya. Ulang
langkah ini untuk memasukkan DVD Repository selanjutnya.
6) Selamat, anda telah berhasil memasukkan DVD Repository Ubuntu pada Synaptic.
Selanjutnya anda tinggal menggunakan synaptic+DVD repo tersebut apabila ingin
menginstall paket-paket yang dibutuhkan
Hardisk Offline
Untuk membuat repository lokal didalamhttp://repo.ugm.ac.id/ekstra/other/ hardisk pribadi,
setidaknya harus mengerti dengan perintah command line
1) Buka terminal kemudian ketikkan vim script untuk membuat script download
2) kemudian ketikkan baris program seperti dibawah lalu simpan, contoh namanya script-
repo
#!/bin/sh
host=repo.ugm.ac.id
root=ubuntu
#host=kambing.ui.edu
#root=ubuntu
dist=gutsy,gutsy-updates,gutsy-security
section=main,multiverse,universe,restricted
arch=i386
dir=/media/disk/mirror-gutsy
debmirror --progress -m --host=$host --root=$root --method=http --dist=$dist --section=
$section --arch=$arch --nosource /media/disk-2/repo/ubuntu/ --ignore-release-gpg --
postcleanup
3) selanjutnya berikan hak akses executable pada file script-repo tersebut.
chmod +x script-repo
4) Jalankan script-repo tersebut pada target partisi yang kita inginkan untuk menyimpan
repository.
#sh script-repo
5) Tunggu sampai selesai
6) Untuk menggunakan repository yang telah kita simpan didalam harddisk, edit
file /etc/apt/source.list
#nano /etc/apt/source.list
7) kemudian masukkan baris seperti dibawah, sesuaikan path lokasinya dengan path pada
hardisk anda
deb file:/media/disk-3/repo/ubuntu gutsy main restricted multiverse universe
deb file:/media/disk-3/repo/ubuntu gutsy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb file:/media/disk-3/repo/ubuntu gutsy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
8) Selanjutnya jalankan perintah apt-get update untuk mengupdate sistem anda.
9) Anda dapat menggunakan synaptic untuk instalasi paket dalam modus grafis
Instalasi Ndiswrapper
Paket ini akan sangat berguna apabila WiFi Card anda tidak dapat terdeteksi menggunakan
driver pada Linux. Dengan Ndiswrapper anda dapat menggunakan driver WiFi Card Windows
1. Install paket ndiswrapper-common dan ndiswrapper-utils menggunakan Synaptic
2. Pada terminal, masuk ke folder tempat driver. cari file yang berekstensi .inf/.INF,
kemudian ketikkan perintah;
$sudo ndiswrapper -i [nama_driver].INF
3. Untuk melihat driver yang telah terinstall perntahnya
$sudo ndiswrapper -l
4. Selanjutnya masukkan ndiswrapper ke dalam modul agar dapat diload ketika booting
pertama kali
$sudo ndiswrapper -m
5. Untuk menghindari konflik dengan driver bawaan pada Ubuntu (kadang hal ini terjadi).
Non-aktifkan driver bawaan Ubuntu tersebut dengan memasukkannya kedalam
/etc/modprobe.d/blacklist
6. Restart komputer anda untuk melihat perubahan
Instalasi Flash Player
Plugin flash pada Ubuntu tidak langsung terinstall. Kita harus mendownload dan instalasi secara
manual. Pada repository, plugin flash-player non-free mengharuskan kita mendownload
langsung dari situs macromedia tersebut.
Kita dapat menggunakan Synaptic untuk mendownload plugin flash non-free, atau
mendownloadnya dan menginstall secara manual.
Untuk cara manual yaitu sebagai berikut;
1) Download plugin flash untuk
http://repo.ugm.ac.id/ekstra/other
linux
pada
situs
http://adobe.com
atau
di
2) Ekstrak isi file tersebut. Kemudian masuk ke terminal. Pada folder plugin flash yang
telah diekstrak tadi, jalankan perintah
$sudo flashplayer-installer
masukkan path kedalam /usr/lib/firefox
3) Terakhir tekan y, untuk memulai instalasi. Kemudian q untuk berhenti
4) Buka kembali firefox anda, untuk mencoba menjalankan animasi flash pada browser
Restricted Driver Manager
Ada beberapa device yang harus menggunakan restricted driver. Hal ini sering dijumpai pada
vga yang menggunakan chipset Nvidia dan ATI. Untuk mengaktfikan kemampuan 3D pada vga
tersebut, kita dapat menginstall secara terpisah.
Sebelum menginstall driver tersebut, pastikan repository sudah terkoneksi dengan baik.
Selanjutnya masuk ke Menu -> administration -> restricted Drivers Manager
Pada restricted Drivers Manager, berikan tanda cek pada driver yang ingin diinstall, kemudian
klik OK untuk mendownload dan memulai proses instalasi. Apabila sudah selesai restart
kmputer anda untuk melihat perubahan yang terjadi
Konfigurasi sharing samba printer
Kita dapat menjadikan Linux sebagai server printer sharing. Proses konfigurasinya harus
dilakukan sebagai user root. Pada distro Ubuntu/Debian, buka terminal.
Start Menu -> Accesories -> Terminal
Selanjutnya masuk sebagai user root, atau ketikkan perintah (Pada Ubuntu);
$sudo nano /etc/samba/smb.conf
Beberapa baris yang harus diedit adalah;
1) Pada bagian authentikasi, security diisikan menjadi security = share
2) Pada bagian authentikasi, encrypt passwords = true
3) Pada bagian authentikasi, guest account = nobody
4) Pada bagian printing, load printers = yes
5) Pada bagian printing, printing = cups
6) Pada bagian printing, printcap name = cups
7) Pada bagian share definition, tag printers, browseable = yes
8) Pada bagian share definition, tag printers, public = yes
Anda dapat memasukkan beberapa konfigurasi tambahan untuk memastikan samba berjalan
lancar, sebagai berikut;
9) Pada bagian networking, nilai interface-nya diisi dengan kondisi mesin saat itu
10)Pada bagian global - browsing identification, berikan nilai baru bernama netbios name
dengan nama yang diinginkan. Paling mudah, nama pengguna dari komputer tersebut
Simpan dan restart service samba dengan menggunakan perintah:
$sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
berikut contoh file konfigurasi samba server yang telah di modifikasi;
#======================= Global Settings =======================
[global]
## Browsing/Identification ###
# Change this to the workgroup/NT­domain name your Samba server will part of
workgroup = MSHOME
# server string is the equivalent of the NT Description field
netbios name = MUSTOFA­TU
server string = %h server (Samba, Ubuntu)
# Windows Internet Name Serving Support Section:
# WINS Support ­ Tells the NMBD component of Samba to enable its WINS Server
; wins support = no
# WINS Server ­ Tells the NMBD components of Samba to be a WINS Client
# Note: Samba can be either a WINS Server, or a WINS Client, but NOT both
; wins server = w.x.y.z
# This will prevent nmbd to search for NetBIOS names through DNS.
dns proxy = no
# What naming service and in what order should we use to resolve host names
# to IP addresses
; name resolve order = lmhosts host wins bcast
#### Networking ####
# The specific set of interfaces / networks to bind to
# This can be either the interface name or an IP address/netmask;
# interface names are normally preferred
; interfaces = 127.0.0.0/8 eth0
interfaces = 10.3.100.200/16 eth0
# Only bind to the named interfaces and/or networks; you must use the
# ‘interfaces’ option above to use this.
# It is recommended that you enable this feature if your Samba machine is
# not protected by a firewall or is a firewall itself. However, this
# option cannot handle dynamic or non­broadcast interfaces correctly.
; bind interfaces only = true
#### Debugging/Accounting ####
# This tells Samba to use a separate log file for each machine
# that connects
log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m
# Put a capping on the size of the log files (in Kb).
max log size = 1000
# If you want Samba to only log through syslog then set the following
# parameter to ‘yes’.
; syslog only = no
# We want Samba to log a minimum amount of information to syslog. Everything
# should go to /var/log/samba/log.{smbd,nmbd} instead. If you want to log
# through syslog you should set the following parameter to something higher.
syslog = 0
# Do something sensible when Samba crashes: mail the admin a backtrace
panic action = /usr/share/samba/panic­action %d
####### Authentication #######
# “security = user” is always a good idea. This will require a Unix account
# in this server for every user accessing the server. See
# /usr/share/doc/samba­doc/htmldocs/Samba3­HOWTO/ServerType.html
# in the samba­doc package for details.
security = share
# You may wish to use password encryption. See the section on
# ‘encrypt passwords’ in the smb.conf(5) manpage before enabling.
# encrypt passwords = true
# If you are using encrypted passwords, Samba will need to know what
# password database type you are using.
passdb backend = tdbsam
obey pam restrictions = yes
guest account = nobody
invalid users = root
# This boolean parameter controls whether Samba attempts to sync the Unix
# password with the SMB password when the encrypted SMB password in the
# passdb is changed.
; unix password sync = no
# For Unix password sync to work on a Debian GNU/Linux system, the following
# parameters must be set (thanks to Ian Kahan < for
# sending the correct chat script for the passwd program in Debian Sarge).
passwd program = /usr/bin/passwd %u
passwd chat = *EntersnewsUNIXspassword:* %nn *RetypesnewsUNIXspassword:* %nn
*passwordsupdatedssuccessfully* .
# This boolean controls whether PAM will be used for password changes
# when requested by an SMB client instead of the program listed in
# ‘passwd program’. The default is ‘no’.
; pam password change = no
########## Domains ###########
# Is this machine able to authenticate users. Both PDC and BDC
# must have this setting enabled. If you are the BDC you must
# change the ‘domain master’ setting to no
#
; domain logons = yes
#
# The following setting only takes effect if ‘domain logons’ is set
# It specifies the location of the user’s profile directory
# from the client point of view)
# The following required a [profiles] share to be setup on the
# samba server (see below)
; logon path = %Nprofiles%U
# Another common choice is storing the profile in the user’s home directory
; logon path = %N%Uprofile
# The following setting only takes effect if ‘domain logons’ is set
# It specifies the location of a user’s home directory (from the client
# point of view)
; logon drive = H:
; logon home = %N%U
# The following setting only takes effect if ‘domain logons’ is set
# It specifies the script to run during logon. The script must be stored
# in the [netlogon] share
# NOTE: Must be store in ‘DOS’ file format convention
; logon script = logon.cmd
# This allows Unix users to be created on the domain controller via the SAMR
# RPC pipe. The example command creates a user account with a disabled Unix
# password; please adapt to your needs
; add user script = /usr/sbin/adduser –quiet –disabled­password –gecos “” %u
########## Printing ##########
# If you want to automatically load your printer list rather
# than setting them up individually then you’ll need this
load printers = yes
# lpr(ng) printing. You may wish to override the location of the
# printcap file
; printing = bsd
; printcap name = /etc/printcap
# CUPS printing. See also the cupsaddsmb(8) manpage in the
# cupsys­client package.
printing = cups
printcap name = cups
# When using [print$], root is implicitly a ‘printer admin’, but you can
# also give this right to other users to add drivers and set printer
# properties
; printer admin = @lpadmin
############ Misc ############
# Using the following line enables you to customise your configuration
# on a per machine basis. The %m gets replaced with the netbios name
# of the machine that is connecting
; include = /home/samba/etc/smb.conf.%m
# Most people will find that this option gives better performance.
# See smb.conf(5) and /usr/share/doc/samba­doc/htmldocs/Samba3­HOWTO/speed.html
# for details
# You may want to add the following on a Linux system:
# SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
socket options = TCP_NODELAY
# The following parameter is useful only if you have the linpopup package
# installed. The samba maintainer and the linpopup maintainer are
# working to ease installation and configuration of linpopup and samba.
; message command = /bin/sh ­c ‘/usr/bin/linpopup “%f” “%m” %s; rm %s’ &
# Domain Master specifies Samba to be the Domain Master Browser. If this
# machine will be configured as a BDC (a secondary logon server), you
# must set this to ‘no’; otherwise, the default behavior is recommended.
; domain master = auto
# Some defaults for winbind (make sure you’re not using the ranges
# for something else.)
; idmap uid = 10000­20000
; idmap gid = 10000­20000
; template shell = /bin/bash
#======================= Share Definitions =======================
# Un­comment the following (and tweak the other settings below to suit)
# to enable the default home directory shares. This will share each
# user’s home directory as serverusername
;[homes]
; comment = Home Directories
; browseable = no
# By default, serverusername shares can be connected to by anyone
# with access to the samba server. Un­comment the following parameter
# to make sure that only “username” can connect to serverusername
; valid users = %S
# By default, the home directories are exported read­only. Change next
# parameter to ‘yes’ if you want to be able to write to them.
; writable = no
# File creation mask is set to 0600 for security reasons. If you want to
# create files with group=rw permissions, set next parameter to 0664.
; create mask = 0600
# Directory creation mask is set to 0700 for security reasons. If you want to
# create dirs. with group=rw permissions, set next parameter to 0775.
; directory mask = 0700
# Un­comment the following and create the netlogon directory for Domain Logons
# (you need to configure Samba to act as a domain controller too.)
;[netlogon]
; comment = Network Logon Service
; path = /home/samba/netlogon
; guest ok = yes
; writable = no
; share modes = no
# Un­comment the following and create the profiles directory to store
# users profiles (see the “logon path” option above)
# (you need to configure Samba to act as a domain controller too.)
# The path below should be writable by all users so that their
# profile directory may be created the first time they log on
;[profiles]
; comment = Users profiles
; path = /home/samba/profiles
; guest ok = no
; browseable = no
; create mask = 0600
; directory mask = 0700
[printers]
comment = All Printers
browseable = yes
path = /var/spool/samba
printable = yes
public = yes
writable = no
create mode = 0700
# Windows clients look for this share name as a source of downloadable
# printer drivers
[print$]
comment = Printer Drivers
path = /var/lib/samba/printers
browseable = yes
read only = yes
guest ok = no
# Uncomment to allow remote administration of Windows print drivers.
# Replace ‘ntadmin’ with the name of the group your admin users are
# members of.
; write list = root, @ntadmin
# A sample share for sharing your CD­ROM with others.
;[cdrom]
; comment = Samba server’s CD­ROM
; writable = no
; locking = no
; path = /cdrom
; public = yes
# The next two parameters show how to auto­mount a CD­ROM when the
# cdrom share is accesed. For this to work /etc/fstab must contain
# an entry like this:
#
# /dev/scd0 /cdrom iso9660 defaults,noauto,ro,user 0 0
#
# The CD­ROM gets unmounted automatically after the connection to the
#
# If you don’t want to use auto­mounting/unmounting make sure the CD
# is mounted on /cdrom
#
; preexec = /bin/mount /cdrom
; postexec = /bin/umount /cdrom
koneksi Dialup
Menggunakan HaPe ­­skip­­
Menggunakan Telkomnet instan ­­skip­­
Menggunakan Speedy ­­skip­­

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